Andrew S


Entry Number: 2

Okinawa is an island/mountainous area located off the coast of Japan. The population is around 1.4 million people. Okinawa, being where it is located, is capable of supplying the people with many resources to produce heat, fuel, and electricity. To begin, Okinawa has water surrounding the location. Water is a very useful resource. It helps create heat, fuel, and electricity. First, a hydroelectric dam could be built to produce energy. Since there are many streams that run to the ocean and rainfalls enter the stream, it makes it useful to use a hydroelectric dam to help prevent flooding. A hydroelectric dam can also be useful through a turbine being spun when some water is released from the dam. It will then help generate electricity to then heat homes. Another useful resource is petroleum deposits off the coast of Okinawa's shores. The petroleum that lays at the bottom of the ocean could be drilled for its properties that provide homes with electricity through it providing fuel to power plants. Petroleum can also be a useful fuel in making asphalt for streets along with making plastic goods. Another very useful resource that could be used is wind. Off many coasts of beaches, it brings winds that can power wind turbines. These turbines can help generate electricity to give power. Geothermal energy pumps could be installed in the ground to help heat and cool homes. This is based on the earth's core maintaining an average temperature of 55 degrees farenheit. The heat is pumped through pumps then provide the house with a moderate average temperature. The population of Okinawa is not a big problem in this area as long as we use renewable resources. This narrows the choices down for energy sources. The best and most profitable energy resource would be hydroelectric dams. The main reason is that Okinawa has much rainfall throughout the year. Charts tell of how rainfall is present annually thoughout Okinawa. A reservoir could be built at the bottom of Mt. Omoto, the highest region in Okinawa. This is based on the rainfall's runoff running into a big reservoir before it runs into the ocean. The water could be purified to be drank or used for energy by the hyrdoelectric dam built around the reservoir. The dam would use a turbine inside of it to turn and allow some drainage of water from it. The turbine being turned allows a generator to power and create electricity. The energy from the dam can also be used as a fuel such as in cars. The electricity from the generator is able to recharge cars that are electric making it a renewable fuel to cars. It can also be another alternative to fossil fuels in powering homes with electricity and not release hazards like power plants. A way to get the info told above is by newspaper articles and the news on T.V.'s. Most people have a tendency to view these certain types of media sources making it easier to get info about hydroelectric dams to people of Okinawa to help support the production of these dams. In building this idea of the dam, it must be thought of the constrcution of the dam and the materials. Materials that would be most needed is drills, cement, metal bars, to carve the dam, backhoes, to help clear the area for a reservoir, generators, turbines, and builders. This project will take many years, but will provide the people of Okinawa with sustainable energy in the long run
that is cheap. The only problem would be able to obtain certain legal rights like having a building permit and consent to build from the government. Okinawa is very subtropical and mountainous region that has natural resources to create energy in the region. All it takes is the info above to help make Okinawa have more sustainable energy.

Not Okinawa, but a good example showing a hyrdroelectric dam



Entry Number: 1

What Is Plug-In Hybrid Cars?
Diagram of what Plug-In hybrid cars are

These cars have a battery that is able to be recharged by plugging it into an
electrical outlet. The outlet must have 120 volts to be able to charge alongwith it being on a 15 amp circuit These hybrids enable less use of thecombustion engine within the car and use the electric motor more often.The car runs on the electric motor until there is no more electricity to beused. The car then switches to a combustible motor that runs on gasolineor other natural gases. Another type of plug-in hybrid is when the carruns on both the combustible and electrical motor to propel the car.

Why is it important? What Impact do Plug-In Hybrid Cars have on the world?

Plug-in hybrid cars are important in many ways. First, the use of electricity
is a money saver compared to a gasoline car. If you take a 20 mpg car
compared to a 30 mpg car, you could save around an average of $950 a year
on gas. Today, technology enables you to travel somewhere between 50
mpg on plug-in hybrids. Now picture how much money you could save

compared to a 20 mpg car per a year. Second, if you do use a plug-in hybrid,
you are doing the plant a big favor. There is about 20 lbs. difference in the
amount of carbon dioxide used in a plug-in hybrid car compared to a
conventional gasoline car. If there less carbon dioxide released into the air,
there will most likely be less air pollution and greenhouse gases floating
around. Basically, when you pay for gas at the pump oftenly, your paying
for your car to produce carbon dioxide into the air. This is why it is important
to use a plug-in hybrid over a conventional gasoline car in hopes of using less
money and protecting the environment at the same time. The impact of plug-in
hybrids is that it reduces less emisions into the air. This will help contribute to
protecting the environment in less polltuion and greenhouse gases from
entering the air. If you are not sure what greenhouse gases are just like me
when doing research, they are gases that trap heat in the atmosphere. This
then creates global warming. Which is not good for earth. Mitsubishi describing a Plug-in hybrid car

Overall what is my interest in Plug-In Hybrid cars? What's your gut reaction? How does it connect to you?

My interest in Plug-In Hybrid cars was the
hearing of the word car. My big interest
Why Plug- In hybrid cars are so efficient. PHEV is plug-in hybrid car

is cars. After doing research on Plug-in
hybrid cars, I saw what a difference to me
and to the environment they could be. If
I am spending a little more money for a
plug-in hybrid car, it would be a no brainer
to me to buy one. They save money for
you every single day that you drive it. Not to
also say, they help in producing less
carbon dioxide into the air along with other
hazardous wastes. Hopefully in the
future, we all will be driving plug-in cars.
The world does not need anymore
disasters to it. We can protect it and help
it see better days. Plug-in hybrid cars
connect to me in many ways. First, it
connects to me in the way I want to live.
In a couple of years, I will have my own
job, home, and probably car. I will
probably be trying to save money like many
other college grads. In purchasing
a plug-in hybrid car, I can help accomplish this. Also, now that I am starting to drive, I realize that I could be skipping the gas pump if I was to use a car, such
as a plug-in hybrid, with it using a grand total of 50. My life would become more efficient in using a plug-in hybrid car.

Entry Number: 2

Located on Okinawa, my location has little space for landfills due to it being an island. The only real way to keep Okinawa sustainable is recycle, reduce, reuse, and compost. Throughout Okinawa, there are many farms and most likley the need for fertile soil. By making compost, it enables farms in using it to enhance their plant growth. By recycling our trash, like papers, water bottles, and glass, it cuts down on how much goes to a landfill. If we do have garbage, we could burn it in an incinerator creating 90% less waste then in a landfill. The drawbacks of using incinerators is that it can cause dioxins to enter the air. This is because the some of the products that are thrown away can become hazardous when burned resulting in it geting into the air and entering a womans reproductive system causing birth defects. Along with making Okinawa more sustainable. We could reuse the products instead of throwing them out. Take a plastic conatiner for example. After using it from eating food out of it, we could reuse and package food for eating out of it when the time comes for another meal. Along with this being said. It enables us to reduce the amount of products being made if we reuse it. Recycling can cut down on the amount that is reduced, but it still uses more enegry then reusing in making another product to be used.To ensure that Okinawa recycles, reduces, reuses, and composts is by passing laws. A law that could be passed to help ensure the cutting down of wastes in Okinwa's trash is by saying "the amount of trash that is weighed for every pound will cost 2 dollars or in Okinawa terms about 186 Japanese Yens". This will help the people of Okinawa realize that trash can affect their sustainablity on their island. The worst option of all these is landfills. The reason is that many tsunamis happen along with typhoons in the Okinawa area. If these diasters do happen, it can result in trash being dispersed everywhere creating hazardous wastes if blown or carried back into the ocean. This can then kill aquatic life. The best option is to reduce wastes on Okinawa or even compost it. The reason is that it cuts down on the amount of wastes being made and having to be recycled or reused. If we were to compost on Okinawa, it would help many of the sugarcane and pineapple farms to grow better by the compost providing many benficial nutrients to the plant. This would enable Okinawa to become more sustainable from waste in using reducing and composting.

From an airshot view, it is seen that there are many farms on Okinawa


Entry Number: 1

What is Leachate?
Leachate from Landfill

Leachate is when liquids percolate through wastes. The water that is percolated is then
leached of the chemical conatminates within the waste. The liquid that carries the harmful
conatminates can be already from that location or from the rain. Most leachate is formed
from landfills. Some leachate, based on the waste products being put into the landfill, can
be harmful like heavy metals, but some are not like salts and dissolved metals. The
formation of leachate is based on waste biodegrading within a lanfill. The biodergading
waste being leached can be organic or inorganic compounds such as metals, oil, nitrogen,
carbon dioxide, and pesticides. These compounds can be harmful in being leached which
leads to the next question.


Why is Leachate Important? What impact does it have on the world?

The reason leachate is important is in it being harmful
towards the environment. When the leachate carries the
contaminates and either seeps into the ground or is carried
by runoff towards a main body of water, it could harm humans

and other assortments of life. In more detail, when the leachate,
harmful contaminates, enters the soil and percolates to the aquifer,
it can become contaminated. When the aquifer does become
contaminated, it affects humans by the drilling of water in aquifers
for the drinking. When the humans do consume the water from that
aquifer, they will become very sick. This is based on the water having
these harmful contaminates. There have been tarps placed under the
landfills to prevent the leachate from entering the aquifer. The problem
with this is that leachate has chemicals within the liquid that are capable
of eating away the tarp in leading to the leachate still reaching the aquifer.
Another impact leachate has on the world is that it can enter watersystems
and harm humans and aquatic life. The leachate enters the watersystem
through runoff. Specifically, the waste from the landfill is bio-degraded or
the chemicals have been leached. This then leads to rain carrying these------------ Video is showing what Leachate looks like
harmful contaminates to a local watersystem that could be used by aquatic
life or humans. It can affect aquatic life through high levels of sedimentation
which can get into fishes gills and harm them. Another impact leachate has
on aquatic life is that PH levels can become very acidic due to many acids
being from landfills. High levels of acid can affect a fishes reproducation and
its gills. The impact of leachate that leachate has on humans through being in
the watersystems is the consumption of its water. In most third world countries,
water treatment is not affordable to be used. This leads to many contaminates
from landfills that is leachate to affect the humans body in consumption.


Overall what is your interest in Leachate? What's your gut reaction? How does it connect to you?My interest in Leachate was from hearing it from my teacher, Mrs. Loch.
Perforated Piping to take Leachate to a leachate holding source

I became really interested in it from doing a little research of how it can
get into my drinking water. I found from my research that it can get into
my water from it being leached and percolating into an aquifer which is
then drained to supply humans for consumption or other needs. Anotherway the leachate was able to be able to enter my drinking water was through it also being leached of contaminates which was then carried by runoff from rain into a local watersystem that was used to provide my house with water. When I found out about this being able to happen to my very own water for my house, my gut reaction was why was this problemnot being dealt with. The solution to my answer was finding that leachate isbeing dealt with through perforated pipes planted throughout the landfill to collect leachate and drain it to a pond where it holds and filters the leachateto be used. Another solution to leachate from traveling to the aquifer was by the placing of clay layers under the land fills. This enabled the lquids that have leachate from percolating through the soil based on clay being very compact.Leachate connects to me through the water I drink. Leachate is possible to reach the water that I use for drinking and using if the landfill local to me is not taken care of. It is not usually probable that I will have leachate in my water due to there being water treatments, but it is possible. This is why landfills must be watched, protected, and controled from leachate in occuring. The prevention of leachate will ultimatley help the environment see a better day in the future.


Water Unit



Entry Number: 2

Okinawa is one of many islands off the coast of Japan. Its climate is subtropical causing it to have much precipiation occuring in the late spring that measures an average of 82 inches every year. The problem is the rain water has no real place to be held for use when it precipitates. There are a few rivers and ponds here and there throughout Okinawa, but there is no real big water source to hold the water. The idea to help this problem for okinawa is to build a big reservoir. The reservoir would be placed at the bottom of the biggest watershed boundry on Okinawa to help collect as much water as possible. Another problem happens from the rain waters runoff. The problem is nitrate and phosphate pollution. There are many farms found on Okinawa that use fertilzers with high contents of nitrate and phosphate levels to help enhance the crops growth.The nutrients can be leached from the soil and carried in runoff to the reservoir. This is said to be a non-point source polltuion. In the reservoir, many algal blooms will start to show and result in there not being enough dissovled oxygen. This can lead to the area in becoming a dead zone. There is a good solution to help the cause of this problem. That solution is wetlands to make the reservoir less pollutated. Wetlands will help prevent and filter the nutrients from the water from runoff. They also help prevent major floods from filling and flooding the reservoir. Also wetlands help by preventing erosion from the runoff. To help the wetlands out with their job of filtering excessive nutrients out of the water, farmers could use a different fertilzer, such as compost, or by using less of that fertilizer. When the water is in the reservoir, it can be put through a water treament plant to be made into fresh, clean water for human consumption. Also, the water from the reservoir, in case of a drought, could be used to water and irrigate crops for farmers through having a drip irrigation system connected to the reservoir. A drip irrigation system helps farmers crops while conserving water use. Based on Keiran Moore's wiki, another useful process of resovlving freshwater for Okinawa is solar desalination/distillation greenhouses/plants. Okinawa is an island surrounded by the ocean. Most water runoff water and precipitation will return to the Pacific Ocean. A solar desalination plant is a plant that pumps water into a greenhouse and separates the salt from the water by evaporating the water and leaving the salt particles. This creates the freshwater for human purposes. The process of solar desalination can start to become expensive. To help resolve this problem, solar powered panels could be set to help cut the cost of the plants in an eco-friendly way. These two processes can help contribute to Okinawa in receving freshwater to use in an effective way.

okinawa farms.jpg
Okinawa Air Shot View of Farms



Entry Number: 1

What is pollution and why is there pollution in the Bay?

Algal Bloom in Bay

It all starts with agriculture. Agriculture is the number one producer in exports of Maryland. Farming is also considered the number one major producer of pollution in the Chesapeake Bay. Pollution is a substance or thing that can have harmful or poisonous effects. In this circumstance, farming, or known as agriculture, can cause pollution through high levels of nitrogen and phosphorous. Nitrogen and Phosphorus are very important nutrients for plants to grow. These nutrients to are the main reason in causing algal blooms. Algal blooms are an increase of algae when nutrients are in high levels making the levels of dissolved oxygen to be low. When the algae starts to increase, it blocks the sunlight from reaching the plants on the bottom of the bay in creating DO, dissolved oxygen. This can result in the plants dieing and other water life organisms to follow. This is foretold by there not being enough dissolved oxygen to support aquatic life from dieing. The term used to describe this is a dead zone, an area with little or no oxygen for aquatic life. These nutrients, the causes of pollution, are caused to end up in the bay througheutrohpication, excessive amounts of nutrients caused by runoffwhich causes dense plant growth (algae) and decreases oxygen levels.


Why is Nitrogen and Phosphorus important?

What impact does it have on the world?

Nitrogen and Phosphorus are very important key factors for plant growth and
development. Phosphorus is important to plants in the help of root growth.
Nitrogen is good for helping the leaves on plants to grow and giving the green,
healthy color on plant's leaves. These nutrients are used alot in plant growth
and the usually there is a need of more. These nutrients are re-added by the use
of fertilizer and compost. The impact through re-applying these nutrients can
lead to harming the Chesapeake Bay from it being a non- point pollution source.
The runoff from rains can carry the fertilizers and compost that are high in
phosphorous and nitrogen levels. These nutrients are then washed away from the
farms into waterways or directly the Bay. This can lead to the process of algal
blooms in killing plant life that provides dissolved oxygen to aquatic life. Much
aquatic life will die. The problem is when these organisms do die, it can directly
affect the fishing and crabbing market. The Bay is known for the selling of the Blue
Maryland Crab,the Striped Bass, and Flounder. If these aquatic organisms and other aquatic
Blue Maryland Crab

organisms where to die, crabbers and fishers would be in a problem with having a
hard time in finding there product when they are dieing. This can result in the fish
and crab commercial sellers not selling enough crabs and fish on the market to make a living.
This will cause people to lose there jobs. The more these nutrients are applied
the more jobs directly and indirectly are lost in the Chesapeake Bay region and even the
world. An example of it indirectly affecting someone's job is in the food
manufacturing. The decrease of the fish and crabs to be proccessed can have
Striped Bass

people being cut from there jobs in not making enough of the product. In conclusion,
Farmers are capable of making their crops and keeping their jobs and business going. While, fishers, crabbers, manufactures, and sellers are not selling and catching enough fish and crabs
and lose their jobs. Another known fact, when there is an algal bloom, it can kill the seaweed in the bay. Seaweed is a known type of grass in the Bay that grows under the water and needs light for growth. It provides food and shelter for aquatic life. With the lost of seaweed, many aquatic organisms will die. This can affect the natural food cycle when there is not enough seaweed for organisms to eat and to have provide shelter for them. This can lead to the other organisms being affected from not having enough of that organism to eat. It can eventually lead to there not being enough of that certain organism to eat for humans. The nutrients applied to the soil are bad for the aquatic ecosystem and directly and indirectly to humans.



Overall what is your interest in the pollution to the aquatic ecosystem?

What's your gut reaction? How does it connect to you?

In response to the pollution being caused by excessive nutrients in the Bay,
Photo taken on the Bay's shore

the farmers need to not add them so often. The farmers are re-adding these
nutrients that are high in phosphate and nitrate levels by the way of compost
and fertilizers. If the farmers could take the fertilizer or compost that have
levels of nutrients and not keep re-adding them so often, it help bring down
the algal blooms that are being caused. Another solution would be that
farmers add these high level nutrients a little bit at a time. If these farmers
were not already that smart, they would plan ahead with the use of fertilizers
and compost. They would see if there is a storm coming that could potentialy
bring floods and runoffs in washing away there product that was added. If the
farmers keep re-adding and using the fertilzers and compost that have high
levels of nitrate and phosphate in them, It would be seen that the Bay would
probably have many dead fish, crabs, and all sorts of aquatic organisms
along the sandy shores. These dead zones need to be prevented and to be
Andy and todd fishing.jpg
My Friends and I fishing

watched over the next few years. Warning signs need to be shown to farmers
of what they are doing to harm the Bay that provides water to there crops. The
excessive nutrients added to soil need to be stopped before it is to late. I have
the chance to see what the effects have to the Bay. During some summers, I
walk along the shoreline and count how many dead fish and crabs I see. It
usually only takes me twenty minutes of walking to see and count up to fifty
dead fish and crabs on the shore. I usually go fishing and crabbing during the
weekends. I sometimes bring home the crabs and eat them. I enjoy the Bay and
what it provides. I and many other people would not like to see the Bay go to waste due to nutrient caused pollution.


Agricutlure Unit


Entry Number: 2

Located 26.5 N(degrees), 128 E(degrees), Okinawa is one of many islands off the coast of Japan. Its climate is subtropical that has much precipiation occuring in the late spring that measures an average of 82 inches every year. Its temperatures are cool winters(average 60 degrees) and hot summers ( average 80 - 85 degrees). These temperatures are perfect for the growth of plants.
Since my community is farming for vegitables and fruits and has clay soil, I will need to mix sand and compost in my soil to help the water and nutrients infliltrate. This will allow the nutrients and water to be drained to keep the soil moist but also allow some of the nutrients and water to be held in the soil from the clay for our plants to use. To make our compost, we will have designated people go around the community with buckets and gather leftover food products from the community. Since Okinawa is an island, other people will be designated to gather sand from the beaches. After the compost and sand mix is laid in the clay soil, my community will plant selective breeded seeds from previous farm crops that have been farmed. These seeds are to provide the most nutrient and tastiest crop. They are all natural and not genetically modified like GMO seeds. To help the plant growth of the selective bred seeds, my community will plant lima bean and soy bean seeds in between the selective bred seeds. The reason for this is that lima bean and soy bean plants have nodules on there roots that store nitrogen fixing bacteria that break down nitrogen in the soil into a usable form called nitrate to help the growth of the plant and can also provide food. Another way to help the growth of our plants is to make an irrigation system that traps rain water and stores it. The system will allow an amount of water into passages throughout the farm fields to water our plants. Also my community will use organic fertilizer. I would prefer using organic fertilizer over synthetic is that it decomposes faster so that it does not get in our water systems and hurt us. It also increases the ability to hold nutrients and water through having humus, organic decomposed organisms. For when pesticide problems develop like mosquitos, and any kind of pest, our community will follow IPM, intergrated pest managment that controls pests in a more economic and bio-freindly wa. For example, we would have a group of researchers and discover a predator of the pest that we can grow and develop to use against the pests and not hurt our crops in any way. An example would be mosquitos because of there bothering the farmers throughout the day. We could do research and find that building bat houses throughout the farms can keep the population of mosquitos down from the bat being a predator. Next, since there can be heavy rainfalls that can lead to floods and destroy our plants in Okinawa, we will develop flood walls and drain systems that we can use to drained and be stored in our irrigation system. Typhoons are known to pop up in Okinawa. For this reason, we will build storages to store and perserve our crop if the plants are destroyed. We are also building indoor fish farms to supply us with compost and food in the time of need. These farms can supply our compost with good nutrients through the dead fish or in the need of eating. The reason we say need is that fish are on a higher trophic level making there be less usable energy then before and less resources used. This how I would do the farming in Okinawa.

Air shot of Okinawa



Entry Number: 1

What are Fish Farms?

A fish farm is a farm that breeds fish to be eaten by people or other farm.jpg
A fish farm is made up by having an enclosed area with water to breed or
carry fish until they grow of age and size to be eaten. A fish farm usually
carries only one type of fish. Good examples of fish kept on these farms are salmon, koi, carp, sea bass, or catfish. These fish are typical food that you see on a seafood menu except for koi. Most fish farms are kept indoors
or in lakes and in oceans. They can be descirbed as like cages or tanks holding the fish. They are not usually that big but some commerical businesses use big cages or tanks.


Fish Farms importance and impact on the world

More than 40% of the fish farms produce seafood throughout the world.
This near high percentage can be good but also bad on the world.SeafoodImportersGraphic_grid-6x2.jpg
Specifically, fish farms in 3rd world countries can be important. This reason is because of the selling of fish on the market by using fish farms will make
it cheaper and easier way of selling fish. This is a good food source with
fish having high protein and being cheap for those that are low in poverty.
Another important fact to know about fish farms is that they create good job
oppurtunities for people. A few drawbacks in fish farming is that when the farm
is not being treated and kept well the fishes environment can become polluted.
This can cause fish to either die or carry diseases that can hurt humans when
in eating the fish. It was told by that consumers in the U.S. are
unhappy with salmon as there diet because of the fish being tainted with mercury and PCB's. Another problem that is impacted in the world is that
fish farms have destroyed wetlands. The reason for this is that businesses of fish farming have taken fish that are polluted with chemicals and disease and take the wetlands that remove pollutants.Though in keeping the polluted and diseased
fish there, it destroys wetlands that are habitats for other animals and plants that
need to survive through having it.


Here's why I am interested in Fish Farms

The main reason is that it sounded interesting and I like to fish. When having contaminants.jpg
done research about fish farms, I have become very interested in it. My main
reason that fish farms interests me is that fish such as the salmon could have mercury and PCB's in it. The other day for dinner I was eating salmon that my mom had gotten at the grocery store down at Dreshertown. This fish had a 40% chance of being on a fish farm now that I know. It tasted very good and I would have had no idea I was basically eating poison maybe. After reading about mercury and PCB's, I did more research and found that in eating salmon and some other fish more then once in a month makes the risk of consuming mercury and PCB's very high. I also did research on PCB's, polychlorinated biphenyls, because I did not know what it was and I found out it is a chlorinated toxin made by humans that lays at the bottom of oceans, lakes, and rivers that enters into the fish. This is what got my attention into doing research and making my entry on Fish Farms.