cooltext1030791610.png




cooltext986647081.gif
Once a prosperous city, Chernobyl opened up it's nuclear power plant in 1970. it would be only sixteen years before the
devastation of generator four melting down on April 26 1986.
chernobyl-timm-suess-lenin-square.jpg
Lenin Square in Chernobyl. http://www.businessinsider.com/chernobyl-disaster-photos-timm-suess-2012-4?op=1
Nothing special was happening, it was a routine system check and a power surge ran through the system what led them to try an emergency shut down. Their attempt was followed by an exceptionally larger spike in power rupturing a reactor vessel and the releasing of a series of steam explosions. These events exposed the graphite moderator of the reactor to air, causing it to ignite. The resulting fire sent a plume of highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area. The fallout

spread across the western Soviet Union and eastern Europe. Between the years of 1986 and 2000, around 350,400 people were evacuated from the most contaminated area of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. After this tragic event 237 people were contaminated with acute radiation sickness. 31 if these victims died within a few months, most who were firefighters and rescue workers who were not aware of the dangers that laid inside the nuclear steam clouds. later reports from the Ukrainian government stated that as of 1995, there were 5,722 Ukrainian casualties from this event. As for the environmental concerns. the nuclear radiation spread to the Dieneper reservoir what caused immediate problems with the local drinking water. Thankfully, within a year, even the water closest to the meltdown was declared drinkable. Today there in a nineteen mile radius of a zone called, "the zone of alienation" what is a area around where the power plant used to be with very few people still living there that had refuse to leave. This area has heavily reverted to forest, but even today the nuclear radiation is so high, that the Ukrainian government said the are might not be safe for humans to live in for another 20,000 years.

Bonus fact: This was one of the events that led to reforms in the Soviet Union that would eventually lead to the fall of it.


http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/featured/chernobyl-then-now/14634?image=0
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_disaster



cooltext916057416.png


cooltext940821985.png



taiwan-sat.jpg
A Picture if the Island of Taiwan (www.globalsecurity.org)
The coordinates i ended up are 120 East, 23 North what lands in the southern pat of Taiwan. Taiwan has a subtropical climate with the Tropic of Cancer roaring through every June. has an average temperature around 77 degrees year round except for summer where it can go over 100.

After the Mayan Apocalypse of 2012, I found my self with several others washed on the shore of Taiwan. It has now been three months and we are beginning to have a problem with our waste. As usual the citizens of our town have turned to me to find a solution to our problem.

We already had a trash collection system in our town, each family was given a trashcan for every three rooms in their home and once a week someone is assigned to collect our trash and transport it to our landfill about five miles out. we have about 5 land fills and an incinerator near the town to remind us that our trash does not go away. Our citizens have actually produced less trash since we installed the incinerator so that tactic actually worked.

I recommended that we would construct a a plant to conduct plasma gasification (my wiki). This would allow a way to have a waste free way of disposing of our trash and a way to help with our energy problem (To be discussed later). I also recommended that we could install a couple of MRFs around the area so we could recycle our glass, paper, and other metals that take up about 75% of our landfills.



cooltext916059370.png

Plasma Gasification is a process using plasma technologies to convert organic matter and waste into gas energy in a oxygen starved environment.

There are four states of matter; solids, liquids, gasses, and plasma.
pg.gif
The steps of Plasma Gasification http://recoveredenergy.com/overview.html



Electricity is fed to a torch, which has two electrodes, creating an electric arc. Inert gas, an example of his would be steam, is passed through the arc, heating the process gas to internal temperatures as high as 25,000 degrees Fahrenheit. During this time molecular dissociation can occur breaking down molecular bonds into basic elemental components that are a gas.

The wastes used in Plasma Gasification are primarily municipal solid wastes and organic wastes, but it may also include bio-medical wastes and hazmat materials. the content and the consistency of the waste directly impacts performance of a plasma facility. Pre-sorting and recycling useful material before gasification provides . Too much inorganic material such as metal and construction waste increases slag production. This also decreases syngas production. However the benefit is that the slag itself is chemically inert and safe to handle. Certain materials may affect the content of the gas produced, however. The waste fed to the gasification also depends on the amount of energy used to follow the process.

This process creates pure high calorific synthetic gas including CO, H2, and CH. The amount of waste that is converted into gas through the process is greater then 99%. Nonflammable inorganic maters, primarily metals, are not broken down, but turned into a liquid and added to the volume of the slag. The gasification reactor that is used operate under negative pressure, because the gas from the process, unlike other gasses, does not want to escape. The process also is amazingly ecologically friendly and produces only ecologically friendly wastes.'


This interests me because this could be our answer to replace fossil fuels like oil with the only thing keeping up the supply for it would be us ourselves.


http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/plasma-converter.htm
http://recoveredenergy.com/d_plasma.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_gasification




cooltext857797123.png




cooltext889965934.png


taiwan.gif
Taiwan. http://go.hrw.com/atlas/norm_htm/taiwan.htm
The coordinates i ended up is 120 East, 23 North what lands in the southern pat of Taiwan. Taiwan has a subtropical climate with the Tropic of Cancer roaring through it every June. has an average temperature around 77 degrees year round except for summer where it can go over 100. Rain fall is common especially in the summer months during typhoon season.

Taiwan's average rain fall is around 2.6 times the times the global average so one of the first things i would suggest for a water supply, especially when the Tropic of Caners roll though, would be rain barrels. Rain barrels are barrels that you would put in places like on the roofs of you house to catch rain to use as fresh drinking or cleaning water.

Another major source of water would be the major rivers including the Beinan and Gaoping River.
gaoping_river.jpg
Gaoping river. http://www.taiwan.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=33725

To sustain a clean water source i would have wetlands and waste water treatments plants built around the rivers to reduce the pollution in the water keeping the river clean and usable for the population the river is sustaining. In the cleaner area of the river we could build dams that provide hydroelectricity to provide power to the local homes and the dam could also create a reseviors as another source for fresh water.

Just like other Islands, Taiwan is surrounded by the biggest body of water on the planet, the ocean. We could use desalination plants to extract water from the ocean for fresh water. In times of drought the high expenses would be worth the sustainable source of fresh water through we could acquire from it. (We would also not have to import salt anymore :P)

Other methods we could use to sustain water would be the use of drip irrigation and recycled water for our agriculture. We could also use ow flow shower heads and dual flushed toilets to save water from our domestic use.


cooltext857894346.png


baikal_seal.jpg
Fresh Water Seal
Lake Baikal is famous for many things, but the most interesting is the fact that this is the worlds oldest and deepest fresh water lake. Other unique facts about this amazing place is that one fifth of the worlds fresh water is found here and that more than half of the organisms found here is unique to this area, one of these being the worlds only species of fresh water seals, this gives Lake Baikal an interesting ecosystem.
The diversity of Lake Baikal's organic world gives evidence of the abundance of different ecological niches in it and complexity of relations. In the primary output sources, the structure of biotopes and differences of the abiotic environment parameters.

































ct2.pngct1.png
My location was 120 East, 23 North what lands in the southern pat of Taiwan. Taiwan has a subtropical climate with the Tropic of Cancer roaring through it every June. has an average temperature around 77 degrees year round except for summer where it can go over 100. Rain fall is common especially in the summer months during typhoon season.
tainwan1.jpg
A tea plantation in southern Taiwan

taiwanls.jpg
some of the landscape in southern taiwan


Alluvial soil is the most common type of soil found in Taiwan. The soil is constantly mineral rich thanks to the rivers bringing down the nutrients form the mountains. The rivers also bring down rocks rich with silicon making this soil very fertile. This soil would be best suited under a decent loam.



Water is highly available in Taiwan receiving 6,700 mm of rain a year and multiple rivers branching off the mountain range in the center of the country bringing water filled with rich soil and minerals..

Even though the soil in mineral rich and rain fall normally can sustain the plants, I would recommend seem compost bins around lunch area at schools and work places and outside at home in case of drought and the rivers are not able to bring down the minerals from the mountains.

Taiwan has one of the best Irrigation systems in the world so i really can not say much about recommending anything to them about that.
The common crops grown in Taiwan are asparagus, rice, there famous oolong tea, cotton, tobacco, apples, and mushrooms.
Some of the biggest pests in Taiwan is the codling moth, tetrastichus brontispa, Brontispa longissima, and Tamarixia radiata.

With Taiwan's very high population of 23,174,528, i would recommend eating no higher then the third trophic level with a meatless a couple times a week.


radiation.png




Nuclear meltdowns has happened in a couple places in our world. How it has affected the land and agriculture around it can be vital information if nuclear bombings happen over the next 100 years and if we can use the radiated land for a place to live and grow food. Nuclear meltdowns in Ukraine and Japan have devastated the land around it greatly and are examples on how dangerous the radiation is to the surrounding land. Their greatest source of water is the groundwater form the constant heavy rains.

Chernobyl, Ukraine
On April 26 1986 at the reactor number 4 of the Chernobyl Plant there was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown

The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located next to the Pripyat River, which feeds into the Dnipro River reservoir system, one of the largest surface water systems in Europe. The contamination of the water had made it undrinkable, but thankfully was safe enough to drink after a couple weeks. The radiation killed most of the fish and the rest had high radiation levels creating a shortage of fish for a while.

A memorial to the firefighters who died at Chernobyl
A memorial to the firefighters who died at Chernobyl

The ground water was luckily not contaminated but the surface soil adsorbed a lot of it instead. however, significant transfers of radionuclides to groundwater have occurred from waste disposal sites in the 30 km (19 mi) exclusion zone around Chernobyl. After the disaster, four square kilometers of pine forest directly downwind of the reactor turned reddish-brown and died, earning the name of the "Red Forest". Some animals in the worst-hit areas also died or stopped reproducing. The Norwegian Agricultural Authority reported that in 2009 a total of 18,000 livestock in Norway needed to be given uncontaminated feed for a period of time before slaughter in order to ensure that their meat was safe for human consumption. This was due to residual radioactivity from Chernobyl in the plants they graze on in the wild during the summer. The after-effects of Chernobyl were expected to be seen for a further 100 years, although the severity of the effects would decline over that period. An area extending 19 miles (31 km) in all directions from the

external image Workers-remove-radioactiv-001.jpgplant is known as the "zone of alienation." It is largely uninhabited, except for a few residents who have refused to leave. The area has largely reverted to forest. Even today, radiation levels are so high that the workers responsible for rebuilding the sarcophagus are only allowed to work five hours a day for one month before taking 15 days of rest. Ukrainian officials estimate the area will not be safe for human or animal life again for another 20,000 years. (Site:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chernobyl_disaster#Effects)




Fukushima, Japan


On March 11 2011, the nuclear meltdown in Fukushima happened soon the major earthquake Reactor 4 had been de-fuelled while 5 and 6
external image fukushima+nuclear+radiation.jpg
were in cold shutdown for planned maintenance. The remaining reactors shut down automatically after the earthquake, and emergency generators came online to control electronics and coolant systems. The tsunami resulted in flooding of the rooms containing the emergency generators. Consequently those generators ceased working, causing eventual power loss to the pumps that circulate coolant water in the reactor. The pumps then stopped working, causing the reactors to overheat due to the high decay heat that normally continues for a short time, even after a nuclear reactor shut down. The flooding and earthquake damage hindered external assistance. Reactors 1, 2 & 3 soon had meltdowns over the next couple days and exploded. Concerns about the possibility of a large scale radiation leak resulted in 20 km exclusion zone being set up around the power plant and people within the 20–30 km zone being advised to stay indoors. As of August 2011, the crippled Fukushima nuclear plant is still leaking low levels of radiation and areas surrounding it could remain uninhabitable for decades due to high radiation. It could take "more than 20 years before residents could safely return to areas with current radiation readings of 200 millisieverts per year, and a decade for areas at 100 millisieverts per year". There was also a huge amount of radioactivity found in the Pacific ocean origination of the meltdown. The exposure to the ocean had been the most ever applied to it that we have ever observed. Recent measurements show persistent contamination of some

external image fukushima-nuclear-reactor1_0.jpg

marine species (mostly fish) caught along the coast of Fukushima district. Organisms that filter water and fish at the top of the food chain are, over time, the most sensitive to caesium pollution. It is thus justified to maintain surveillance of marine life that is fished in the coastal waters off Fukushima. (Site:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukushima_Daiichi_nuclear_disaster)


Quick recap concerning the land around it.


Chernobyl: Kill all plants and wild life in the surrounding area, still uninhabitable today though the forest has regrown. Infected Top soil moving from there to the ground water at some locations. Infected the Pripat river that lead to infecting a major European water system. Killed and infected huge populations of fish. Radiation poisoning in the surrounding areas. Radiation apread across eastern Europe and western Solviet Union.

Fukushima: Radiation poisoning in the surrounding areas, Radiation was carried over across the Pacific ocean. Largest exposure of radioactivity to the ocean we have ever witnessed. Infected fish in the surrounding waters.

Radioactivity in Food


I came across questions on http://www.bloomberg.com with some interesting question regarding how food is affected by radiation. (Questions have been answered by scientists in India, Australia, and New Zealand.)

Q: How does nuclear radiation affect food? A: A damaged nuclear plant, like the one in Japan’s Fukushima prefecture, releases radiation and radioactive particles. The former is energy and the latter is matter. Exposing food to radiation doesn’t always make it harmful to human health. Fruit and vegetables are often irradiated to increase their shelf life. Food products that contain radioactive nuclei, which are subatomic particles that emit gamma rays, can be toxic and may cause cancer.

Q: What happens when you eat contaminated food? A: Radioactive particles accumulate in the body and continue to release radiation. This may lead to changes in the molecular structure of the cells and has been linked to cancer. Iodine-131, the radioactive form of iodine, is absorbed by the thyroid and can cause thyroid cancer. Cesium-137 , which isn’t stored in any one part of the body, increases the overall cancer risk by as much as a few percentage points

Q: How do you know if food is contaminated? A: A sensitive radiation detector can be used to detect food contaminated with radioactive particles. There is no externally visible sign or indication.


Q: Is there a way to remove radioactivity? A: No. Often radioactive particles are absorbed inside plants or meat, and washing or cooking may not remove them.

Why I picked this

I am a big fan of history and one of the big reasons we learn it is so we do not repeat it. Since its existence, nuclear power has become a major energy source and weapon. Problem is that it is very toxic to us, and can be very harmful the earth around us. nuclear contamination in food automatically mean we must dispose of it as fast as possible and if in the future if the constant possibility of contamination becomes a world wide problem we should focus on finding ways to fix it. Radiation poisoning is killing off people, animals, and fish who are exposed to too much of it and it could be the thing that wipes us off this earth if we are not careful with it.